New Role for Kristoffer Greaves starts in June 2015

Deakin2EFPIThings have been a bit quiet on this blog over the last few months while I worked through the final phase of my PhD candidature. Now I have two items of news regarding my research and a new professional role.

I completed and submitted my PhD thesis for examination on 31 March 2015. Examination usually takes some months and often involves amendments to the thesis. Followers of this blog might recall my research investigated Australian practical legal training practitioners’ engagements with scholarship of teaching and learning. The study produced a number of interesting findings that I hope to share, subject to the thesis passing examination.

My other news concerns a new professional role starting in June 2015. Earlier this week I accepted a position as Lecturer in Professional Education at Charles Sturt University’s Education for Practice Institute in Sydney (EFPI). This represents an advance for my work in the theory and practice of professional education and training. It is an opportunity to work with internationally recognised leaders, including Professor Joy Higgs and Associate Professor Franziska Trede, in the areas of professional education, practice-based education, and workplace-based learning, .

What does this mean for PleagleTrainer Blog? I will continue to study and write about teaching and learning in professional legal education and practical legal training. Naturally, the blog will begin to include insights gleaned during my new role at EFPI, and I look forward to sharing those with you in future.


“Forks of Law” at #britsoc14 BSA annual conference

I will present at Roundtable Session 29 (Sports Hall 2) on Friday 25 April at the British Sociological Association annual conference at Leeds University. The images below are from my introductory handout.

BSA handout p. 1
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BSA handout p. 2
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BSA handout p. 3
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BSA handout p. 4
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Taking into account ‘affect’ in Practical Legal Training

This post is an edited version of a comment that I posted to the Practical Legal Training Educators Australia discussion group.

I recently finished re-reading Julian Webb’s chapter, ‘The Body in (E)motion: Thinking through Embodiment in Legal Education’ in Paul Maharg and Caroline Maughan (eds), Affect and Legal Education – Emotion in Learning and Teaching the Law, Emerging Legal Learning (Ashgate, 2011) 211.

I think Julian Webb makes a compelling argument (at p 227) that, ‘By enabling our students to get social in the classroom, to come together in a more structured and reflective way, group learning can actively support their social and moral development, and – maybe, just maybe – enhance their ability to become ‘better’ social actors…’

This chapter follows nicely from Graham Ferris and Rebecca Huxley-Binns’ chapter, ‘What Students Care About and Why We Should Care’ in the same book. They rightly argue at p 195, ‘…that those delivering education should explicitly and deliberately consider the purposes of learners, meaning the things they do or might value, or care about, or strive for. Whilst the choice of purpose is that of the learner, we can use our experience and knowledge of teaching law in higher education to facilitate purpose, choice or value adoption or rejection.’

It seems to me that these positions are applicable to the practical legal training environment, not just the academy. That said, some might be understandably concerned about leaning too far toward what students care about and losing sight of the integrity of the training and the PLT accreditation. This is the ‘springboard’ for my following comments.

Taking the skills workshop situation as an example, we can design the instruction and plan certain learning objectives for this experiential learning experience.
There may be ‘global’ objectives embodied by ‘global’ statements in the Competency Standards for Entry-Level Lawyers; ‘instructional’ objectives the students’ performance goals, the conditions for that performance, and the the criterion for satisfactory performance. We can frame specific educational objectives as a subject-verb-object sentence: ‘[During the role-play interview] the student will be able to obtain all instructions necessary [to commence work on the client’s problem and to provide preliminary advice in plain language]’. We could specify what ‘plain language’ means in this context (e.g. we could decide to exclude ‘txt-speech’, and explain why – notions of professionalism, regularity, respect, integrity, etc.) Here, I’ve drawn on Mager, R.F., Preparing Instructional Objectives. 1997, Atlanta, Georgia, USA: CEP Press.

It is also possible to explicitly plan the learning across different levels of processing (e.g. retrieval, comprehension, analysis, knowledge utilisation, meta-cognition, and the self-system/affective level) across different domains of learning (information, mental procedures, psychomotor procedures). Here, I’ve drawn on Marzano, R.J. and J.S. Kendall, eds. The New Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. 2nd ed. 2007, Corwin Press: Thousand Oaks, California. I have previously blogged about this taxonomy.

Taking the above into account when planning the workshop, we can decide to adopt certain evidence-based teaching methods, such as advanced organisers, graphic organisers, whole-class interactive or co-operative learning approaches, and use a range of media to do this. I am drawing on Petty, Geoff, Evidence-based Teaching – A Practical Approach (Nelson Thornes, 2nd ed, 2009) here. Of course, it is important that the material and methods we use are ‘authentic’ and relevant to the learning objectives.

When we actually ‘perform’ or ‘deliver’ the workshop, ‘stuff’ comes up during discussions or arising out of the practice role-play interviews. It may be the student asks a question about how to handle a certain situation, or a student recalls an analogous situation from their volunteer legal work or graduate placement. We might respond by opening the question up to discussion, or share an illustrative ‘war story’ anecdote from our own practice to give an example of how we solved a problem. These are usually good opportunities to employ, and model, ‘reflection-in-action’, and ‘reflection-on-action’ approaches to teaching, learning and professional practice. I am thinking about the work of Chris Argyris and Donald Schön, but in particular Schön’s book., Educating the reflective practitioner, Jossey-Bass higher education series. (Jossey-Bass, 1st pbk. print. ed, 1990). Peter Senge is also good to read about this – Senge, Peter M., The Fifth Discipline – The Art & Practice of the Learning Organisation (Doubleday Business, 2nd ed, 2006).

These interactions have social as well as educational qualities; both of which involve the students emotionally to some extent.

Running through all of this, from planning to delivery, are considerations concerning the affective domain / self-system level of processing learning. What students want and feel is relevant to emotionally driven judgements about whether the learning task is important and relevant to their learning goals and their ability to complete the learning task: motivation to learn = value x expectancy. This can be especially important with adult learners who can resist what they perceive as ‘supplementary’ learning (Atherton, James, ‘Resistance to Learning: A Discussion Based on Participants in In-Service Professional Training Programme’ (1999) 51(1) Journal of Vocational Education and Training: The Vocational Aspect of Education 77).

Some tend to focus on these aspects in relation to initial engagement, but I think they’re equally important to student satisfaction with the learning and could possibly affect their feelings about continuing professional education. In other words, what we do during the interactions is relevant to the immediate educational objective, but also could affect young lawyers’ commitment to life-long learning, and either impinge or enhance their satisfaction with their professional development, and their chosen profession. I think these factors are also relevant in training entry-level lawyers to pursue thinking about ethics and professional responsibility.

So, I agree that it is important to be clear about what are our teaching and learning goals in facilitating our students construction of themselves as lawyers; I think it is important that we are able to justify our instructional decision-making; it seems to me that both of those propositions involve developing our understanding of the affective domain of learning in practical legal training so we can continually improve the way we train lawyers.


Written examinations as summative assessment; are they appropriate in PLT?

In ‘Why Study Emotion?’ in Paul Maharg and Caroline Maughan (eds), Affect and Legal Education, Emerging Legal Learning (Ashgate, 2011) 11 at 27-28, Caroline Maughan asks, ‘to what extent can the negative affect associated with formal assessment remain unacknowledged?’, ‘What is the real purpose of our formal assessment systems?’. ‘Should some of the time and effort devoted to coverage and summative assessment be traded off against using that time to offer opportunities for students to improve their understanding…’?. These questions are framed in the context of student motivation and satisfaction and their need for feedback (formative assessment).

I think they are important questions, and I add that written examinations often only measure a fairly limited spectrum of students’ cognitive processing (to see what I mean by ‘cognitive processing’, I have previously blogged about Marzano and Kendall’s taxonomy of education objectives here).
What are your views on written examinations as a form of summative assessment in PLT?


Practical Legal Training Educators Australia

I have set up a new group on LinkedIn: Practical Legal Training Australia.

I hope that this will be a useful place for discussions about research and practice for educators involved in Practical Legal Training.


Mind Maps!

I have a thing for mind maps (or concept maps). Due to a bout of influenza that laid me low for 3 weeks years ago during law school I had to sit a closed book contract exam 5 months after I studied the subject. Mind maps got me through. I am progressively adding some recent mind maps (mostly focused on education) to a new page.

Mind Map - SOLO Taxonomy
SOLO Taxonomy

APLEC, Paul Maharg

I had a enjoyed a short but encouraging exchange with Paul Maharg re online legal education, I recommend a visit to his blog – APLEC, Friday am, presentations, 1 & 2 — Paul Maharg.