The Colloquium Document

PhD Workspace
A focused workspace?

As part of my PhD candidature I must complete a 10,000 word colloquium document and present at a colloquium within the first 12 months of candidature. From my perspective it is partly a ‘gate-keeping’ procedure to ensure candidates are progressing and focusing their project, and that the research is on balance likely to make a ‘substantial original contribution to knowledge’.

My colloquium presentation is unlikely to take place until February 2013, but I thought I would start drafting the document now, given that I have already undertaken a lot of reading about the subject matter (a scholarship of teaching in practical legal training), and toward developing a theoretical framework for the project (at this stage I am drawing on Bourdieu’s theoretical tools, and de Certeau’s concept of practices in everyday life and ‘le perruque’). I have decided on undertaking a qualitative methodology, combining policy research (looking at the law and policy underlying practical legal training) and narrative inquiry (learning from PLT teachers’ narratives about how they moved into practical legal training and what they have to say about scholarship of teaching). I have also been reading up on grounded theory approaches to research and the Glaser/Strauss debate about ’emergence’ and ‘forcing’ of theory from the data. I have undertaken some training with the NVivo computer assisted qualitative data analysis software (CAQDAS), with some more advanced training timetabled later in August 2012. I have to say that I have found NVivo very interesting to work with, and I will write a separate post about this soon.

I have found that working on my colloquium document this week has been a very useful exercise. The process has helped me to get a sense of ‘where am I up to’ since starting the candidature on 31 March 2012, and it has highlighted several strengths and weaknesses in my work and reflection undertaken so far. ‘Strengths’, in reminding me just how much reading and reflection and note-taking I have already done, and how this has contributed to my knowledge. ‘Weaknesses’, in identifying gaps and blind spots in my theorising, and also in the ‘logistics’ of my research.

I am now thinking that I should have started drafting this colloquium document much earlier and used it in conjunction with a reflective approach of memo-writing, so that the document provides a focused ‘space’ for my work. That said, I am pleased that I have started it now, 4-5 months into the candidature, rather than later. I guess that some might say there is a danger of feeling ‘locked-in’ to what is in the colloquium document, but I think that if I remind myself that it is a dynamic document in every aspect, then that should not be a problem.

So, if you are a PhD candidate, what is your approach to the colloquium document? Do you think that starting on it early as part of a reflective approach is a good idea?


Taking into account ‘affect’ in Practical Legal Training

This post is an edited version of a comment that I posted to the Practical Legal Training Educators Australia discussion group.

I recently finished re-reading Julian Webb’s chapter, ‘The Body in (E)motion: Thinking through Embodiment in Legal Education’ in Paul Maharg and Caroline Maughan (eds), Affect and Legal Education – Emotion in Learning and Teaching the Law, Emerging Legal Learning (Ashgate, 2011) 211.

I think Julian Webb makes a compelling argument (at p 227) that, ‘By enabling our students to get social in the classroom, to come together in a more structured and reflective way, group learning can actively support their social and moral development, and – maybe, just maybe – enhance their ability to become ‘better’ social actors…’

This chapter follows nicely from Graham Ferris and Rebecca Huxley-Binns’ chapter, ‘What Students Care About and Why We Should Care’ in the same book. They rightly argue at p 195, ‘…that those delivering education should explicitly and deliberately consider the purposes of learners, meaning the things they do or might value, or care about, or strive for. Whilst the choice of purpose is that of the learner, we can use our experience and knowledge of teaching law in higher education to facilitate purpose, choice or value adoption or rejection.’

It seems to me that these positions are applicable to the practical legal training environment, not just the academy. That said, some might be understandably concerned about leaning too far toward what students care about and losing sight of the integrity of the training and the PLT accreditation. This is the ‘springboard’ for my following comments.

Taking the skills workshop situation as an example, we can design the instruction and plan certain learning objectives for this experiential learning experience.
There may be ‘global’ objectives embodied by ‘global’ statements in the Competency Standards for Entry-Level Lawyers; ‘instructional’ objectives the students’ performance goals, the conditions for that performance, and the the criterion for satisfactory performance. We can frame specific educational objectives as a subject-verb-object sentence: ‘[During the role-play interview] the student will be able to obtain all instructions necessary [to commence work on the client’s problem and to provide preliminary advice in plain language]’. We could specify what ‘plain language’ means in this context (e.g. we could decide to exclude ‘txt-speech’, and explain why – notions of professionalism, regularity, respect, integrity, etc.) Here, I’ve drawn on Mager, R.F., Preparing Instructional Objectives. 1997, Atlanta, Georgia, USA: CEP Press.

It is also possible to explicitly plan the learning across different levels of processing (e.g. retrieval, comprehension, analysis, knowledge utilisation, meta-cognition, and the self-system/affective level) across different domains of learning (information, mental procedures, psychomotor procedures). Here, I’ve drawn on Marzano, R.J. and J.S. Kendall, eds. The New Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. 2nd ed. 2007, Corwin Press: Thousand Oaks, California. I have previously blogged about this taxonomy.

Taking the above into account when planning the workshop, we can decide to adopt certain evidence-based teaching methods, such as advanced organisers, graphic organisers, whole-class interactive or co-operative learning approaches, and use a range of media to do this. I am drawing on Petty, Geoff, Evidence-based Teaching – A Practical Approach (Nelson Thornes, 2nd ed, 2009) here. Of course, it is important that the material and methods we use are ‘authentic’ and relevant to the learning objectives.

When we actually ‘perform’ or ‘deliver’ the workshop, ‘stuff’ comes up during discussions or arising out of the practice role-play interviews. It may be the student asks a question about how to handle a certain situation, or a student recalls an analogous situation from their volunteer legal work or graduate placement. We might respond by opening the question up to discussion, or share an illustrative ‘war story’ anecdote from our own practice to give an example of how we solved a problem. These are usually good opportunities to employ, and model, ‘reflection-in-action’, and ‘reflection-on-action’ approaches to teaching, learning and professional practice. I am thinking about the work of Chris Argyris and Donald Schön, but in particular Schön’s book., Educating the reflective practitioner, Jossey-Bass higher education series. (Jossey-Bass, 1st pbk. print. ed, 1990). Peter Senge is also good to read about this – Senge, Peter M., The Fifth Discipline – The Art & Practice of the Learning Organisation (Doubleday Business, 2nd ed, 2006).

These interactions have social as well as educational qualities; both of which involve the students emotionally to some extent.

Running through all of this, from planning to delivery, are considerations concerning the affective domain / self-system level of processing learning. What students want and feel is relevant to emotionally driven judgements about whether the learning task is important and relevant to their learning goals and their ability to complete the learning task: motivation to learn = value x expectancy. This can be especially important with adult learners who can resist what they perceive as ‘supplementary’ learning (Atherton, James, ‘Resistance to Learning: A Discussion Based on Participants in In-Service Professional Training Programme’ (1999) 51(1) Journal of Vocational Education and Training: The Vocational Aspect of Education 77).

Some tend to focus on these aspects in relation to initial engagement, but I think they’re equally important to student satisfaction with the learning and could possibly affect their feelings about continuing professional education. In other words, what we do during the interactions is relevant to the immediate educational objective, but also could affect young lawyers’ commitment to life-long learning, and either impinge or enhance their satisfaction with their professional development, and their chosen profession. I think these factors are also relevant in training entry-level lawyers to pursue thinking about ethics and professional responsibility.

So, I agree that it is important to be clear about what are our teaching and learning goals in facilitating our students construction of themselves as lawyers; I think it is important that we are able to justify our instructional decision-making; it seems to me that both of those propositions involve developing our understanding of the affective domain of learning in practical legal training so we can continually improve the way we train lawyers.


APLEC, Paul Maharg

I had a enjoyed a short but encouraging exchange with Paul Maharg re online legal education, I recommend a visit to his blog – APLEC, Friday am, presentations, 1 & 2 — Paul Maharg.


APLEC 2011

The Australasian Professional Legal Education Council (APLEC) Conference for 2011 (APLEC 2011) was hosted by the University of Technology Sydney Faculty of Law during 10-12 November 2011 at their campus in Quay Street, Haymarket.

Keynote speakers include: Professor Paul Maharg, Professor Sally Kift, Paul F. Wood, Executive Director, Legal Education Society of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada, and Elizabeth Loftus.

I have posted my impressions from the conference.